Community of Inquiry References

Academic References

Christopher, M., Thomas, J., & Tallent-Runnells, M. (2010). Raising the bar: Encouraging higher-level thinking in online discussion forums. Roeper Review, 26(3), 166-171.

Compares the experiences of students interacting in online discussion forums and the more time‐constrained interactions students would experience in courses held on campus.​

Clarke, L., & Bartholomew, A. (2014). Digging Beneath the Surface: Analyzing the Complexity of Instructors’ Participation in Asynchronous Discussion. Online Learning: Official Journal of The Online Learning Consortium, 18(3). Retrieved from

Analyzes the impacts of instructor participation in asynchronous discussions.

Dallimore, E., Hertenstein, J., & Platt, M. (2010).  Classroom participation and discussion effectiveness: Student-generated strategies. Journal of Communication Education.

Explores techniques faculty can use to increase participation in discussions.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education model. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.

Presentation of foundational research on the elements of the Community of Inquiry framework.

Hosler, K., & Arend, B. (2012). The importance of course design, feedback, and facilitation: student perceptions of the relationship between teaching presence and cognitive presence. Educational Medial International, 49(3).

Investigates student perceptions of elements of cognitive and teaching presence in both online and face-to-face classes.​

Richardson, J. C., Besser, E., Koehler, A., Lim, J., & Strait, M. (2016). Instructors’ Perceptions of Instructor Presence in Online Learning Environments. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(4).

Considers online faculty perceptions of instructor presence.

Shea, P., Pickett, A., & Pelz, W. (2003). A follow-up investigation of "teaching presence" in the SUNY learning network. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(2), 61-80.

Examines components of teaching presence that comprise productive online interactions amongst students and between faculty and students.​

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